My birthday's pretty damn spectacular.
6TH of AUGUST:
1284 - Italian city of Pisa is defeated in Battle of Meloria by Genoa, ruining its naval power.
1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.
1661 - The Treaty of The Hague is signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic.
1787 - Sixty proof sheets of the Constitution of the United States are delivered to the Constitutional Convention.
1806 - Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates ending the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
1819 - Norwich University is founded in Vermont as the first private military school in the United States.
1825 - Bolivia gains independence from Spain.
1845 - The Russian Geographical Society is founded in Saint Petersburg.
1861 - The United Kingdom annexes Lagos, Nigeria.
1862 - American Civil War: the Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas is scuttled on the Mississippi River after suffering damage in a battle with USS Essex near Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1870 - Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Wörth is fought, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory.
1890 - At Auburn Prison in New York murderer William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed by electric chair.
1901 - Kiowa land in Oklahoma is opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation.
1909 - Alice Ramsey and three friends become the first women to complete a transcontinental auto trip.
1912 - The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum.
1914 - World War I: First Battle of the Atlantic - two days after the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, ten German U-boats leave their base in Helgoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.
1914 - World War I: Serbia declares war on Germany; Austria declares war on Russia.
1915 - World War I: Battle of Sari Bair - the Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.
1917 - World War I: Battle of Mărăşeşti between the Romanian and German armies begins.
1926 - Gertrude Ederle becomes first woman to swim across the English Channel.
1926 - In New York City, the Warner Brothers' Vitaphone system premieres with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore.
1926 - Harry Houdini performs his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.
1930 - Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears.
1942 - Queen Wilhelmina becomes the first reigning queen to address a joint session of the United States Congress.
1945 - World War II: Hiroshima is devastated when the atomic bomb "Little Boy" is dropped by the United States B-29 Enola Gay. Around 70,000 people are killed instantly, and some tens of thousands die in subsequent years from burns and radiation poisoning.
1956 - After going bankrupt in 1955, the American broadcaster DuMont Television Network makes its final broadcast, a boxing match from St. Nicholas Arena.
1960 - Cuban Revolution: in response to a United States embargo, Cuba nationalizes American and foreign-owned property in the nation.
1962 - Jamaica becomes independent.
1964 - Prometheus, a bristlecone pine and the world's oldest tree, is cut down.
1965 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.
1966 - Braniff Airlines Flight 250 crashes in Falls City, NE killing all 42 on board.
1976 - Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lays the foundation stone of Port Qasim, Karachi.
1986 - A low-pressure system that redeveloped off the New South Wales coast dumps a record 328 millimeters (13 inches) of rain in a day on Sydney.
1988 - The Tompkins Square Park Police Riot in New York City spurs reform of the NYPD, who were responsible for the melee that transpired the night of August 6-7.
1990 - Gulf War: the United Nations Security Council orders a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
1991 - Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the World Wide Web. WWW debuts as a publicly available service on the Internet.
1991 - Doi Takako, chair of the Social Democratic Party (Japan), becomes Japan's first female speaker of the House of Representatives.
1993 - Heavy rains and debris kill 72 in the Kagoshima and Aira areas, of Kyūshū, Japan.
1996 - NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.
1997 - Korean Air Flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, crashes into the jungle on Guam on approach to airport, killing 228.
2008 - A military junta led by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz stages a coup d'état in Mauritania, overthrowing president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
1180 - Emperor Go-Toba of Japan (d. 1239)
1504 - Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1575)
1609 - Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (d. 1675)
1619 - Barbara Strozzi (baptized), Italian singer and composer (d. 1677)
1638 - Nicolas Malebranche, French philosopher (d. 1715)
1644 - Louise de la Vallière, French mistress of Louis XIV of France (d. 1710)
1656 - Claude de Forbin, French naval commander (d. 1733)
1666 - Maria Sofia of the Palatinate, queen of Portugal (d. 1699)
1697 - Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1745)
1715 - Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues, French writer (d. 1747)
1766 - William Hyde Wollaston, English chemist (d. 1828)
1768 - Jean-Baptiste Bessières, French marshal (d. 1813)
1775 - Daniel O'Connell, Irish politician (d. 1847)
1809 - Alfred Lord Tennyson, English poet (d. 1892)
1826 - Thomas Alexander Browne, Australian writer (d. 1915)
1844 - Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1900)
1844 - James Henry Greathead, British engineer (d. 1896)
1861 - Edith Roosevelt, American First Lady of the United States (d. 1948)
1866 - Matthew Henson, Arctic explorer (d. 1955)
1868 - Paul Claudel, French poet (d. 1955)
1874 - Charles Fort, American writer and researcher (d. 1932)
1877 - Wallace H. White, Jr., American politician (d. 1952)
1880 - Hans Moser, Austrian actor (d. 1964)
1881 - Leo Carrillo, American actor (d. 1961)
1881 - Alexander Fleming, Scottish scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1955)
1881 - Louella Parsons, American gossip columnist (d. 1972)
1883 - Scott Nearing, American writer, educator, and activist (d. 1983)
1887 - Dudley Benjafield, British racing driver (d. 1957)
1888 - Heinrich Schlusnus, German baritone (d. 1952)
1889 - George Kenney, American Air Force General (d. 1977)
1889 - John Middleton Murry, English poet (d. 1957)
1891 - William Slim, British general (d. 1970)
1892 - Hoot Gibson, American actor (d. 1962)
1893 - Wright Patman, American politician (d. 1976)
1895 - Ernesto Lecuona, Cuban pianist and composer (d. 1963)
1900 - Cecil H. Green, American geophysicist (d. 2003)
1902 - Dutch Schultz, American bootlegger (d. 1935)
1904 - Henry Iba, American basketball coach (d. 1993)
1906 - Vic Dickenson, American trombonist (d. 1984)
1908 - Helen Jacobs, American tennis player (d. 1997)
1908 - Will Lee, American actor (d. 1982)
1910 - Charles Crichton, British film director (d. 1999)
1911 - Lucille Ball, American actress (d. 1989)
1911 - Norman Gordon, South African cricketer
1911 - Constance Fecher Heaven, British romance writer (d. 1995)
1914 - Arthur Charles Dobson, British racing driver (d. 1980)
1916 - Richard Hofstadter, American historian (d. 1970)
1916 - Dom Mintoff, Maltese Prime Minister
1917 - Robert Mitchum, American actor (d. 1997)
1918 - Norman Granz, American record producer (d. 2001)
1920 - Ella Raines, American actress (d. 1988)
1922 - Sir Freddie Laker, English entrepreneur (d. 2006)
1923 - Jess Collins, American artist (d. 2004)
1925 - Barbara Bates, American actress (d. 1969)
1926 - Clem Labine, American baseball player (d. 2007)
1926 - Frank Finlay, British actor
1926 - Norman Wexler, American screenwriter (d. 1999)
1928 - Herb Moford, American baseball player (d. 2005)
1928 - Andy Warhol, American artist (d. 1987)
1929 - Roch La Salle, Canadian politician (d. 2007)
1930 - Abbey Lincoln, American jazz singer
1932 - Howard Hodgkin, British painter
1933 - A. G. Kripal Singh, Indian cricketer (d. 1987)
1934 - Piers Anthony, English writer
1934 - Chris Bonington, British mountaineer
1934 - Billy Boston, Welsh rugby league footballer
1937 - Baden Powell de Aquino, Brazilian guitarist (d. 2000)
1937 - Barbara Windsor, English actress
1938 - Paul Bartel, American actor (d. 2000)
1938 - Peter Bonerz, American actor
1940 - Mukhu Aliyev, Russian politician, President of Dagestan
1940 - Louise Sorel, American actress
1941 - Lyle Berman, American poker player
1941 - Ray Culp, American baseball player
1942 - George Jung, American convicted drug felon
1943 - Jon Postel, American computer scientist (d. 1998)
1945 - Ron Jones, British TV director (d. 1993)
1945 - Andy Messersmith, American baseball player
1946 - Allan Holdsworth, British musician
1946 - Roh Moo-hyun, former President of South Korea (d. 2009)
1946 - Masaaki Sakai, Japanese comedian
1947 - Tony Dell, Australian cricketer
1949 - Dino Bravo, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 1993)
1949 - Alan Campbell, Northern Irish clergyman
1949 - Clarence Richard Silva, Catholic Bishop of Honolulu
1950 - Dorian Harewood, American actor
1951 - Catherine Hicks, American actress
1951 - Daryl Somers, Australian television personality
1952 - Vinnie Vincent, American musician (Kiss)
1953 - Iqbal Qasim, Pakistani cricketer
1954 - Paul Steigerwald, American sports announcer
1955 - Rusty Magee, American composer (d. 2003)
1955 - Gregory Bryant-Bey, American convicted murderer (d. 2008)
1957 - Bob Horner, American baseball player
1957 - Jim McGreevey, American politician
1960 - Dale Ellis, American basketball player
1962 - Marc Lavoine, French singer and actor
1962 - Michelle Yeoh, Chinese-Malaysian actress
1963 - Kevin Mitnick, American computer hacker
1963 - Charles Ingram, British controversial contestant on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
1964 - Moosie Drier, American actor and director
1965 - Yuki Kajiura, Japanese composer
1965 - Juliane Köhler, German actress
1965 - David Robinson, American basketball player
1965 - Mark Speight, British television presenter (d. 2008)
1965 - Vincent Wells, England cricketer
1967 - Archbishop Alexy (Bondarenko), Ukrainian-born theologian
1967 - Mike Greenberg, American sportscaster
1967 - Julie Snyder, Quebec talk show host and producer
1969 - Simon Doull, New Zealand cricketer
1969 - Elliott Smith, American musician (d. 2003)
1970 - M. Night Shyamalan, Indian/American film director
1970 - Erwin Thijs, Belgian cyclist
1971 - Merrin Dungey, American actress
1971 - Scott Minto, English footballer
1971 - Piyal Wijetunge, Sri Lankan cricketer
1972 - Geri Halliwell, British singer (Spice Girls)
1973 - Vera Farmiga, American actress
1973 - Karenna Gore Schiff, American author and political figure
1973 - Max Kellerman, American sportscaster
1973 - Stuart O'Grady, Australian cyclist
1974 - Ever Carradine, American actress
1974 - Luis Vizcaino, Dominican baseball player
1974 - Alvin Williams, American basketball player
1975 - Victor Zambrano, Venezuelan baseball player
1975 - Renate Götschl, Austrian alpine skier
1975 - Jamie McGonnigal, American actor
1976 - Melissa George, Australian actress
1976 - Soleil Moon Frye, American actress
1977 - Leandro Amaral, Brazilian footballer
1977 - Jennifer Lyons, American actress
1977 - Jimmy Nielsen, Danish footballer
1977 - Luciano Zavagno, Argentine footballer
1978 - Marisa Miller, American model
1978 - Brian Maillard, Swiss guitarist (Dominici)
1980 - Danny Collins, Welsh footballer
1980 - Wilber Pan, American/Taiwanese singer
1980 - Seneca Wallace, American football player
1982 - Adrianne Curry, American model and reality television personality
1982 - Kevin van der Perren, Belgian figure skater
1983 - Robin van Persie, Dutch footballer
1983 - C. J. Mosley, American football player
1984 - Vedad Ibisevic, Bosnian footballer
1985 - Bafétimbi Gomis, French footballer
1985 - Garrett Weber-Gale, American swimmer
1988 - Jared Murillo (dancer), American dancer
1990 - Jon Benet Ramsey, American beauty pageant contestant and murder victim (d. 1996)
1991 - Jiao Liuyang, Chinese swimmer
1993 - Lexodus, a strange amalgamation of all of the different gods from every civilisation. Put upon this earth to kick ass and devour orphans, and he's all out of orphans.
2003 - Prince Pierre of Orléans
258 - Saint Pope Sixtus II
523 - Saint Pope Hormisdas
1162 - Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
1195 - Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (b. 1129)
1221 - Saint Dominic, Spanish founder of the Dominicans (b. 1170)
1272 - King Stephen V of Hungary
1414 - King Ladislas of Naples (b. 1377)
1458 - Pope Callixtus III (b. 1378)
1623 - Anne Hathaway (Shakespeare's wife) (b. 1556)
1628 - Johannes Junius, Mayor of Bamberg (b. 1573)
1637 - Ben Jonson, English writer (b. 1572)
1645 - Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, English merchant (b. 1575)
1657 - Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Polish-Lithuanian noble
1660 - Diego Velázquez, Spanish painter (b. 1599)
1679 - John Snell, English royalist (b. 1629)
1694 - Antoine Arnauld, French philosopher and mathematician (b. 1612)
1695 - François de Harlay de Champvallon, French Catholic archbishop (b. 1625)
1753 - Georg Wilhelm Richmann, Russian physicist (struck by lightning) (b. 1711)
1759 - Eugene Aram, English philologist (b. 1704)
1794 - Henry Bathurst, 2nd Earl Bathurst, British politician (b. 1714)
1815 - James A. Bayard (elder), United States Senator from Delaware (b. 1767)
1828 - Konstantin von Benckendorff, Russian general and statesman (b. 1785)
1850 - Edward Walsh, Irish poet (b. 1805)
1866 - John Mason Neale, English divine, scholar and hymnwriter (b. 1818)
1881 - James White, co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (b. 1821)
1884 - Robert Spear Hudson, English businessman (b. 1812)
1890 - William Kemmler, American axe murderer
1893 - Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
1904 - Eduard Hanslick, Austrian music critic (b. 1825)
1914 - Ellen Louise Wilson, first wife of President Woodrow Wilson (b. 1860)
1920 - Stefan Bastyr, Polish aviator, first flight in independent Poland (b. 1890)
1925 - Sir Surendranath Banerjea, leader, Indian National Congress (b. 1848)
1931 - Bix Beiderbecke, American musician (b. 1903)
1945 - Richard Bong, American ace fighter pilot and Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1920)
1945 - Hiram Johnson, American politician (b. 1866)
1945 - Prince Wu of Korea (b. 1912)
1946 - Tony Lazzeri, American baseball player (b. 1903)
1959 - Preston Sturges, American playwright, screenwriter, and director (b. 1898)
1964 - Sir Cedric Hardwicke, English actor (b. 1893)
1966 - Cordwainer Smith, American writer (b. 1913)
1969 - Theodor Adorno, German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1903)
1970 - Nikos Tsiforos, Greek screenwriter and film director
1973 - Memphis Minnie, American blues singer (b. 1897)
1973 - Fulgencio Batista, Cuban president and de facto leader (b. 1901)
1974 - Gene Ammons, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1925)
1976 - Gregor Piatigorsky, Russian cellist (b. 1903)
1978 - Pope Paul VI (b. 1897)
1978 - Edward Durell Stone, American architect (b. 1902)
1979 - Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, German biochemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1911)
1983 - Klaus Nomi, German singer (b. 1944)
1985 - Forbes Burnham, Guyanese visionary and leader of Guyana from 1964 to his death (b. 1923)
1986 - Emilio Fernández, Mexican actor, screenwriter and film director (b. 1904)
1987 - Ira Eaker, American Air Force leader (b. 1896)
1990 - Jacques Soustelle, French anthropologist (b. 1912)
1991 - Roland Michener, Canadian politician and governor general (b. 1900)
1991 - Shapour Bakhtiar, Iranian prime minister, assassinated in Paris (b. 1915)
1991 - Harry Reasoner, American television reporter (b. 1923)
1993 - Tex Hughson, American baseball player (b. 1916)
1994 - Domenico Modugno, Italian singer and songwriter (b. 1928)
1998 - Andre Weil, French mathematician (b. 1906)
1999 - Rita Sakellariou, Greek singer (b. 1934)
2001 - Jorge Amado de Faria, Brazilian writer (b. 1912)
2001 - Dorothy Tutin, English actress (b. 1930)
2001 - Wilhelm Mohnke, one of the original 120 members of the Nazi SS-Staff Guard (b. 1911)
2002 - Edsger Dijkstra, Dutch computer scientist (b. 1930)
2004 - Rick James, American musician (b. 1948)
2005 - Ibrahim Ferrer, Cuban musician (Buena Vista Social Club) (b. 1927)
2005 - Keter Betts, American jazz bassist (b. 1928)
2005 - Robin Cook, British politician (b. 1946)
2007 - Zsolt Daczi, Hungarian rock guitarist (Bikini, Omen, Carpathia Project Tirana Rockers, solo) (b. 1969)
2007 - Heinz Barth, German convicted war criminal (SS) (b. 1920)
2008 - Angelos Kitsos, Greek lawyer and script writer (b. 1934)
2009 - John Hughes, American film director (b. 1950) - I, unknowingly at the time, was watching The Breakfast Club at the same time.
2009 - W. S. Rendra, Indonesian poet and playwright (b. 1935)
Holidays and observances
Christian Feast Day
Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ
Justus and Pastor
H.H. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan's Accession Day. (United Arab Emirates)
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony (Hiroshima)
Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Bolivia from Spain in 1825.
Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Jamaica from the United Kingdom in 1962.
The beginning of Tanabata festival. (Sendai)
Well, fancy that.
[spoiler=Historical Events on the 22nd of April]# 1145 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
# 1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil
# 1500 Portuguese navigator Pedro lvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil.
# 1509 Henry VIII ascended to throne of England
# 1529 Spain & Portugal divide eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa
# 1529 Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 297.5 leagues or 17 east of the Moluccas.
# 1769 Madame du Barry becomes King Louis XV's "official" mistress
# 1778 Captain John Paul Jones of Ranger led landing party raid on Whitehaven, England
# 1836 Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna.
# 1861 Robert E Lee named commander of Virginia forces
# 1863 American Civil War: Grierson's Raid begins troops under Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
# 1864 US mints $2. coin (1st appearance of "In God We Trust")
# 1876 The Boston Red Stockings defeat the Philadelphia Athletics 6-5 in the first National League Baseball game
# 1884 Thomas Stevens starts first bike trip around the world (2 yrs 9 mos)
# 1889 At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
# 1889 Oklahoma Territory lands formerly reserved for Native Americans are opened to white homesteaders by President Harrison at high noon
# 1889 Oklahoma land rush officially started
# 1897 NYC Jewish newspaper "Forward" begins publishing (stiil active)
# 1898 Spanish-American War action: USS Nashville, takes enemy ship
# 1898 U.S. warships begin blockade of Cuba
# 1903 American Power Boat Association forms
# 1906 Olympic games held in Athens are not accepted by the IOC
# 1911 H E Wood discovers asteroid #715 Transvaalia
# 1912 Pravda, the "voice" of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, begins publications in Saint Petersburg.
# 1915 Firt military use of poison gas (chlorine, by Germany) in WW I
# 1915 The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres.
# 1922 South Ossetian Autonomous Region established in Georgian SSR
# 1930 H Van Gent discovers asteroid #1226 Golia
# 1930 The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
# 1930 US, Britain & Japan agree to reduce naval forces
# 1937 NYC college students stage 4th annual peace strike
# 1940 Rear Adm Joseph Taussig testifies before US Senate Naval Affairs Committee that war with Japan is inevitable (He was right)
# 1945 General Eisenhower invites eight U.S. congressmen to visit death camps.
# 1945 World War II: After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admits defeat in his underground bunker and states that suicide is his only recourse.
# 1946 The first installment of the popular Japanese comic strip, Sazae-san, is published in the Fukunichi Shimbun.
# 1949 Personal posting - Vincent Narus was born in Dorchester Massachusetts
# 1952 The first atomic explosion on network news, Nob, Nevada
# 1954 Red Scare: Army-McCarthy Hearings begin.
# 1954 Senate Army-McCarthy televised hearings began
# 1955 Congress orders all US coins bear motto "In God We Trust"
657 - Battle of Siffin.
811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine emperor Nicephorus I is slain, his heir Stauracius is seriously wounded.
920 - Rout of an alliance of Christian troops from Navarre and Léon against the Muslims at Pamplona.
1309 - Henry VII is recognized King of the Romans by Pope Clement V.
1469 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Edgecote Moor - Pitting the forces of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick against those of King Edward IV.
1581 - Plakkaat van Verlatinghe (Act of Abjuration). The declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II.
1745 - The first recorded women's cricket match took place near Guildford, England
1758 - French and Indian War: Siege of Louisbourg ends with British forces defeating the French and taking control of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
1775 - The birth of what would later become the United States Post Office Department is established by the Second Continental Congress.
1788 - New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States.
1803 - The Surrey Iron Railway, arguably the world's first public railway, opens in south London.
1822 - José de San Martín arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simón Bolívar.
1847 - Liberia declares independence.
1861 - American Civil War: George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
1863 - American Civil War: Morgan's Raid ends - At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
1878 - In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
1882 - Premiere of Richard Wagner's Parsifal at Bayreuth.
1882 - The Republic of Stellaland is founded in Southern Africa.
1887 - Publication of the Unua Libro, founding the Esperanto movement.
1891 - France annexes Tahiti.
1908 - United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
1914 - Serbia and Bulgaria interrupt diplomatic relationship.
1936 - The Axis Powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.
1936 - King Edward VIII, in one of his few official duties before he abdicated the throne, officially unveiled the Canadian National Vimy Memorial.
1937 - End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War.
1941 - World War II: In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.
1944 - World War II: Soviet army enters Lviv, major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160,000 Jews in Lviv prior to Nazi occupation.
1944 - The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain.
1945 - The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom general election of July 5 by a landslide, removing Winston Churchill from power.
1945 - The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.
1945 - The US Navy cruiser Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
1946 - Aloha Airlines began service from Honolulu International Airport
1947 - Cold War: U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Security Council.
1948 - U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.
1952 - King Farouk of Egypt abdicates in favor of his son Fuad.
1953 - Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution.
1953 - Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek Raid.
1956 - Following the World Bank's refusal to fund building the Aswan High Dam, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal sparking international condemnation.
1957 - Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator of Guatemala, is assassinated
1958 - Explorer program: Explorer 4 is launched.
1963 - Syncom 2, the world's first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.
1963 - Earthquake in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (republic of southern Yugoslavia) - 1100 dead
1963 - The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development votes to admit Japan.
1965 - Full independence is granted to the Maldives.
1966 - Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.
1968 - Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu is sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.
1971 - Apollo Program: Apollo 15 Mission - Launch of Apollo 15.
1974 - Greek Prime Minister Constantinos Karamanlis forms the country's first civil government after seven years of military rule.
1975 - Formation of a military triumvirate in Portugal.
1977 - The National Assembly of Quebec imposes the use of French as the official language of the provincial government.
1989 - A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm, thus becoming the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
1990 - The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President George H. W. Bush.
1994 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin orders the removal of Russian troops from Estonia.
1999 - Cessation of combat activities after the Kargil War; Celebrated as Kargil Vijay Diwas in India.
2005 - Space Shuttle program: STS-114 Mission - Launch of Discovery, NASA's first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.
2005 - Mumbai, India receives 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours, bringing the city to a halt for over 2 days.
2005 - Samir Geagea, the Lebanese Forces (LF) leader, is released after spending 11 years in a solitary confinement. His release came after the end of the Syrian occupation to Lebanon.